2 Samuel 23:1-39 NIV
David’s Last Words
1These are the last words of David:
“The inspired utterance of David son of Jesse,
the utterance of the man exalted by The MOST HIGH,
the man anointed by The GOD of Jacob,
the hero of Israel’s songs:
2“The SPIRIT of The LORD Spoke Through me;
HIS WORD Was on my tongue.
3The GOD of Israel Spoke,
The ROCK of Israel Said to me:
‘When one rules over people in righteousness,
when he rules in the fear of GOD,
4he is like the light of morning at sunrise
on a cloudless morning,
like the brightness after rain
that brings grass from the earth.’
5“If my house were not right with GOD,
surely HE Would Not Have Made with me an Everlasting Covenant,
Arranged and Secured in every part;
surely HE Would Not Bring to fruition my salvation
and Grant me my every desire.
6But evil men are all to be cast aside like thorns,
which are not gathered with the hand.
7Whoever touches thorns
uses a tool of iron or the shaft of a spear;
they are burned up where they lie.”
David’s Mighty Warriors
8These are the names of David’s mighty warriors:
Josheb-Basshebeth,a a Tahkemonite,b was chief of the Three; he raised his spear against eight hundred men, whom he killedc in one encounter.
9Next to him was Eleazar son of Dodai the Ahohite. As one of the three mighty warriors, he was with David when they taunted the Philistines gathered at Pas Dammimd for battle. Then the Israelites retreated,10but Eleazar stood his ground and struck down the Philistines till his hand grew tired and froze to the sword. The LORD Brought About a great victory that day. The troops returned to Eleazar, but only to strip the dead.
11Next to him was Shammah son of Agee the Hararite. When the Philistines banded together at a place where there was a field full of lentils, Israel’s troops fled from them. 12But Shammah took his stand in the middle of the field. He defended it and struck the Philistines down, and The LORD Brought About a great victory.
13During harvest time, three of the thirty chief warriors came down to David at the cave of Adullam, while a band of Philistines was encamped in the Valley of Rephaim. 14At that time David was in the stronghold, and the Philistine garrison was at Bethlehem. 15David longed for water and said, “Oh, that someone would get me a drink of water from the well near the gate of Bethlehem!” 16So the three mighty warriors broke through the Philistine lines, drew water from the well near the gate of Bethlehem and carried it back to David. But he refused to drink it; instead, he poured it out before the Lord. 17“Far be it from me, LORD, to do this!” he said. “Is it not the blood of men who went at the risk of their lives?” And David would not drink it.
Such were the exploits of the three mighty warriors.
18Abishai the brother of Joab son of Zeruiah was chief of the Three.e He raised his spear against three hundred men, whom he killed, and so he became as famous as the Three. 19Was he not held in greater honor than the Three? He became their commander, even though he was not included among them.
20Benaiah son of Jehoiada, a valiant fighter from Kabzeel, performed great exploits. He struck down Moab’s two mightiest warriors. He also went down into a pit on a snowy day and killed a lion. 21And he struck down a huge Egyptian. Although the Egyptian had a spear in his hand, Benaiah went against him with a club. He snatched the spear from the Egyptian’s hand and killed him with his own spear. 22Such were the exploits of Benaiah son of Jehoiada; he too was as famous as the three mighty warriors. 23He was held in greater honor than any of the Thirty, but he was not included among the Three. And David put him in charge of his bodyguard.
24Among the Thirty were:
Asahel the brother of Joab,
Elhanan son of Dodo from Bethlehem,
25Shammah the Harodite,
Elika the Harodite,
26Helez the Paltite,
Ira son of Ikkesh from Tekoa,
27Abiezer from Anathoth,
Sibbekaif the Hushathite,
28Zalmon the Ahohite,
Maharai the Netophathite,
Ithai son of Ribai from Gibeah in Benjamin,
30Benaiah the Pirathonite,
Hiddaih from the ravines of Gaash,
31Abi-Albon the Arbathite,
Azmaveth the Barhumite,
32Eliahba the Shaalbonite,
the sons of Jashen,
Ahiam son of Shararj the Hararite,
34Eliphelet son of Ahasbai the Maakathite,
Eliam son of Ahithophel the Gilonite,
35Hezro the Carmelite,
Paarai the Arbite,
36Igal son of Nathan from Zobah,
the son of Hagri,k
37Zelek the Ammonite,
Naharai the Beerothite, the armor-bearer of Joab son of Zeruiah,
38Ira the Ithrite,
Gareb the Ithrite
39and Uriah the Hittite.
There were thirty-seven in all.
Last Words of David
This does not refer to the Psalm in the preceding chapter or the last words he spoke, for he said many things afterwards for the advice he gave to Solomon, and the instructions to him about building the Temple, were delivered after this time. But these were the last after he had finished the Book of Psalms; or the last that he spoke under the inspiration of The HOLY SPIRIT, or that he delivered out by way of prophecy.
But the Targum calls these words a prophecy, and takes them to be a prophecy of The MESSIAH, and of things to come, as undoubtedly they are, paraphrasing them thus;
“These are the words of the prophecy of David, which he prophesied concerning the end of the world, concerning the days of consolation that should come.”
This is observed to excite attention, the last words of dying men being usually regarded and remembered.
David the son of Jesse said;
(1) He began with his descent, which was comparatively mean, in order to illustrate the distinguishing Goodness of GOD to him in his exaltation:
(2) and the man who was raised up on high; from a low estate to an high one, from the sheepfold to the throne, to be king over all the tribes of Israel, and a conqueror, and head of the nations round about him:
(3) the anointed of The GOD of Jacob; who was anointed king by Samuel by the order of The GOD of Jacob; and which was an instance of HIS Being The GOD of Jacob or Israel, and of HIS Care of them, and regard unto them, that HE Anointed such a man to be king over them, as well as it was an honor to David:
(4) and the sweet psalmist of Israel; who composed most of the psalms and hymns of praise for the people of Israel; invented and set the tunes to them to which they were to be sung, and the instruments of music on which they were sung; and appointed singers to preside, and lead them in that part of Divine worship, singing psalms and hymns; and very sweet were the psalms he composed as to the matter of them, and very sweet and delightful to the ear was the music in the manner of singing them: it may be rendered, who was "sweet" or "pleasant in the songs of Israel", his warlike exploits and victories being the subject of them, 1 Samuel 18:6.
For all that goes before are the words of the penman of this book, drawing the character of David; in which he was a type of CHRIST, a Branch out of the root of Jesse, highly Exalted, and Chosen from among the people, Anointed to be Prophet, Priest, and King; and WHO sweetly Expounded the Psalms concerning HIMSELF, and Ordered them to be sung in the churches, and of which HE Is the Subject, and May Be Said to be sweetly held forth in them.
Now HE Said to them, "These Are MY WORDS which I Spoke to you while I Was still with you, that all things which are written about ME in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled. "Then HE Opened their minds to understand the Scriptures.